Around the year 1832, the concept of an electric car was introduced for the first in front of the world.
Robert Anderson developed the first electric vehicle, and in the year 1870 the first electric car was practically introduced and the new era of mechanics in the world of electricity started.
The use of electric cars has brought a significant change in the automobile industry which promotes greener and more sustainable alternatives to traditional internal combustion engine vehicles. Being eco-friendly design and work of the electric car but the attention of the world is towards the possibility of electric car battery explosions.
In this blog, we will reveal the reasons behind the battery explosion and will be exploring the science and engineering behind the technology of electric cars. In this blog, we are also going to suggest a few safety measures to avoid a few risks.
Understanding The Mechanism Of The Electric Car
The basic difference between the mechanism of an electric car and a normal fuel car is the engine. In an electric car instead of an internal combustion engine, an electric motor is used in all-electric cars. All electric cars use a large electric traction battery which initially stores the electricity for running the E-vehicle.
Essential Components Of An Electric Car
- Battery: All electric cars have a battery that provides electricity to power vehicle accessories.
- Charge Port: The use of the charge port is to provide a connection to a power supply from an external source.
- DC/DC Converter: This device converts higher-voltage DC power from the traction battery pack to the lower-voltage DC power needed to run vehicle accessories and recharge the batteries of the E-vehicle.
- Power Electronic Controller: The flow of the electric energy has to be maintained in a proper way, for that purpose a Power Electronic Controller unit is used which manages the flow of electrical energy delivered by the traction battery for controlling the speed of the electric traction motor.
- Traction Battery Pack: It is used to store electrical energy.
- Thermal System & Transmission: This system is used to maintain the proper temperature of all the components of the car and to transmit mechanical energy from electrical energy, respectively.
Understanding Concept Of The Lithium-ion Batteries
Electric vehicle batteries are made up of Lithium-ion for power supply to all the components of the E-vehicle. These batteries are popular in the world due to their high energy density, long cycle life, and relatively low self-discharge rate. Lithium-ion batteries consist of multiple cells that store and release electrical energy through a chemical reaction involving lithium ions moving between positive (cathode) and negative (anode) electrodes.
Following Are The Reasons For The Risk Of Explosion Of The EVs.
- Overheating: One of the primary causes of electric car battery explosions is a phenomenon known as overheating. Batteries explode due to the uncontrolled increase in the temperature, leading to a self-reinforcing chain reaction that results in a release of gas, smoke, and in severe cases, explosions.
- Accidents: Another primary reason for the explosion of the battery is the accident on the runway. Physical damage to the battery pack due to accidents or collisions while driving the vehicle.
Exposure to high temperatures, such as extreme weather conditions or fire may lead to an explosion of the battery.
- Manufacturing Defects: Manufacturing defects or faulty components or due to low quality of the electric and mechanical components.
Overcharging or over-discharging of the battery due to manufacturing defaults.
Contamination of the electrolyte or the battery’s internal components may lead to an explosion of the batteries.
Safety Measures Implemented By The Automobile Companies:
To address the risks associated with electric car battery explosions, automakers, and battery manufacturers have implemented several safety measures, which are as follows:
- Battery Management System or BMS: The automobile companies introduced the BMS for monitoring which regulates the temperature, voltage, and state of charge of the battery pack.
The Battery Management System activates safety mechanisms, such as shutting down the battery in case of overheating or overcharging.
- Thermal Management Systems or TMS:
Electric vehicles incorporate cooling systems to maintain optimal operating temperatures.
Active cooling systems, like liquid cooling, circulate coolant through the battery pack to dissipate heat which as a result helps to avoid the risk of a battery explosion.
- Testing: From time to time servicing of the E-vehicle is important for the smooth functioning of all the components.
- External Protection: Battery packs are designed with robust casings and structures to protect against physical impacts.
While electric car battery explosions are rare occurrences to date, understanding the science behind these incidents is crucial for ensuring the ongoing safety and development of electric vehicles. Through advancements in battery technology, comprehensive safety measures, and continuous research, the automobile industry is actively working to minimize risks associated with battery-related incidents. By raising awareness and implementing stringent safety protocols, we can pave the way for a safer and eco-friendly as well as more sustainable future of electric transportation.